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喀纳斯景区土壤重金属污染及其潜在生态风险评价
王文栋, 白志强, 刘端, 郭仲军
新疆林业科学院 森林生态研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830063
摘要:
[目的] 对喀纳斯景区土壤重金属污染及其潜在生态风险进行评价,为景区资源科学管理和保护提供参考依据。[方法] 以喀纳斯景区为研究区,测定土壤样品As,Pb,Hg,Cd,Zn,Cr,和Cu含量,通过污染负荷指数对喀纳斯景区重金属污染情况进行全面评价,采用潜在生态风险指数法对土壤重金属进行潜在生态风险评价,并运用相关分析与主成分分析法对土壤重金属来源与污染程度进行深入分析。[结果] ①研究区表层土壤As,Pb,Hg,Cd,Zn,Cr和Cu平均含量分别为6.48,16.60,0.10,0.08,84.71,2.47,32.23 mg/kg,其中As,Pb,Hg和Cd高于新疆土壤背景值,Zn,Cr和Cu低于新疆土壤背景值。②人类活动扰动强由强至弱4个样地,7种重金属含量不同,且同一重金属在4个样地间具有一定差异性。③人类活动扰动强样地、人类活动扰动较强样地和人类活动扰动轻微样地3个样地中Hg为重度污染(PLI值分别为5.70,4.36,4.64),Zn,Cr,Cu为轻度污染。全部金属RI均小于150,研究区仅存在轻微生态危害,但研究区Hg污染需关注。④7种重金属间大多存在关系,Pb与Hg,Cd和Zn呈显著相关(p≤0.01)。Cd和Hg来源相同可能性较大,As,Zn和Cu来源可能一致。[结论] 喀纳斯景区受旅游活动干扰土壤中重金属有不同程度的积累,土壤重金属污染愈加严重。
关键词:  重金属污染  污染评价  潜在生态风险  主成分分析
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.06.053
分类号:
基金项目:新疆阿尔泰山森林生态系统国家定位研究站运行补助项目(2018-LYPT-DW-105)
Assessment of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Its Potential Ecological Risk in Kanas Scenic Area
WANG Wendong, BAI Zhiqiang, LIU Duan, GUO Zhongjun
Institute of Forest Ecology, Xinjiang Academy of Forestry, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risk of soil in Kanas scenic area were evaluated to provide reference for scientific management and protection of scenic area resources.[Methods] The Kanas area was used as the study area to determine As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Cu contents of soil samples, through the pollution load index. A comprehensive evaluation of the heavy metal pollution in the Kanas area was conducted. The potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the soil. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to analyze the heavy metal sources and pollution levels.[Results] ① The average contents of As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr and Cu in the surface soil of the study area were 6.48, 16.60, 0.10, 0.08, 84.71, 2.47 and 32.23 mg.kg-1, respectively, of which As, Pb, Hg and Cd were high. The soil background values in Xinjiang area, Zn, Cr and Cu are lower than the soil background values in Xinjiang area. ② The human activities were different from the 7 kinds of heavy metals, their contents were different. ③ Hg was a heavy pollution in a extremely strong disturbance plot of human activities, a strong disturbance plot of human activities, and a slight disturbance plot of human activity(PLI values are 5.70, 4.36, and 4.64 respectively). And Zn, Cr and and Cuwere slightly polluted. All metal RIs were less than 150. There was only a slight ecological hazard in the study area, but Hg pollution in the study area needed more attention. ④ Correlation analysis showed that most of the 7 heavy metals had a relationship. The sources of Cd and Hg are the same and the source of As, Zn and Cu may be the same.[Conclusions] The Kanas scenic area interferes with the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil by tourism activities, and the heavy metal pollution in the soil is more serious.
Key words:  heavy metal pollution  pollution assessment  potential ecological risk  principal component analysis