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保水剂粒径对秦巴山区土壤水分及烤烟生长的影响
杜社妮1, 郭胜利1, 王百群1, 白岗栓1, 何登峰2, 耿伟3, 闫超超4, 赵洋洋5
1.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.陕西省烟草公司, 陕西 西安 710065;3.安康市烟草公司旬阳分公司, 陕西 旬阳 725700;4.商洛市烟草公司洛南分公司, 陕西 洛南 726100;5.宝鸡市烟草公司陇县分公司, 陕西 陇县 721200
摘要:
[目的] 探究保水剂粒径对秦巴山区土壤水分及烤烟生长的影响,为改善秦巴山区烟田的土壤环境以及促进保水剂在烤烟生产中的应用提供科学支持。[方法] 以不施用保水剂为对照,以粉末状(粒径 < 0.18 mm)、细颗粒状(粒径0.18~2.25 mm)和颗粒状(粒径2.25~3.25 mm)的聚丙烯酸钾保水剂为研究材料,监测不同粒径的保水剂对秦巴山区黄棕壤烟田土壤水分、土壤容重及烤烟生长、烤烟品质及经济性状的影响。[结果] 不同粒径的聚丙烯酸钾保水剂在烤烟不同生长期均可提高0—40 cm土层土壤水分,降低0—40 cm土层土壤容重,但对40 cm以下土层的土壤水分无显著影响,其中细颗粒状保水剂对土壤水分、土壤容重影响较大。不同粒径的保水剂均可促进烤烟根系生长及茎叶生长,提高烟叶产量与产值,降低下等烟的比例,其中细颗粒状保水剂对烤烟最大叶片、根系生长量、产量及产值影响较大,但粉末状保水剂对上等烟比例影响较大。[结论] 不同粒径的保水剂均可提高烤烟品质,其中细颗粒状保水剂对烟碱、总氮、钾及氯的影响较大,粉末状保水剂对总糖和还原糖影响较大。秦巴山区黄棕壤烟田应选用细颗粒状的聚丙烯酸钾保水剂。
关键词:  烤烟  保水剂粒径  土壤水分  土壤容重  产量与产值
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.06.016
分类号:
基金项目:中国烟草总公司陕西省公司“秦巴生态优质烟区水肥耦合调控关键技术”(k4030216083)
Effects of Super Absorbent Ploymer with Different Particle Sizes on Soil Moisture and Flue-cured Tobacco Growth in Qinba Mountain Area
DU Sheni1, GUO Shengli1, WANG Baiqun1, BAI Gangshuan1, HE Dengfeng2, GENG Wei3, YAN Chaochao4, ZHAO Yangyang5
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.Tobacco Company of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710065, China;3.Tobacco Company of Xunyang County, Shaanxi Province, Xunyang, Shaanxi 725700, China;4.Tobacco Company of Luonan County, Shaanxi Province, Luonan, Shaanxi 726100, China;5.Tobacco Company of Longxian County, Shaanxi Province, Longxian, Shaanxi 721200, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effect of particle sizes of super absorbent ploymer on soil moisture and flue-cured tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum) growth was studied in order to provide scientific support for improving soil moisture and flue-cured tobacco growth in Qinba Mountain area.[Methods] The experiment took no super absorbent polymer application as control, powder (particle size < 0.18 mm), fine granularity (particle size 0.18~2.25 mm) and granularity(particle size 2.25~3.25 mm) of potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer as the research materials in yellow brown soil of Qinba Mountain area, the effects of different particle sizes of potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer on soil moisture, soil bulk density and flue-cured tobacco growth, flue-cured tobacco quality and flue-cured tobacco economic properties were investigated.[Results] The soil moisture of 0-40 cm soil layer were increased and the soil bulk density of 0-40 cm soil layer were reduced by potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer with different particle sizes in different growing stages of flue-cured tobacco, but there was no significant effect on soil moisture under 40 cm soil layer. Among different particle sizes of potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer, fine granularity potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer had great influence on soil moisture and soil bulk density. Potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer with different particle sizes could promote root growth, stem growth and leaf growth of flue-cured tobacco, increase tobacco yield and tobacco output value, and reduce the proportion of inferior tobacco, and fine granularity potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer had a great effect on the largest leaf growth, root growth, tobacco yield and tobacco output value, but powder potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer has a great influence on the proportion of superior tobacco.[Conclusion] Potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer with different particle sizes improved the quality of flue-cured tobacco, and the fine granularity potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer had great influence on levels of nicotine, total nitrogen, potassium and chlorine of tobacco, and the powder potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer had a great influence on the total sugar and reducing sugar levels of tobacco. Fine granularity potassium polyacrylate super absorbent ploymer should be used in yellow brown soil in Qinba Mountain area in tobacco fields.
Key words:  flue-cured tobacco  particle size of super absorbent ploymer  soil moisture  soil bulk density  tobacco yield and tobacco output value