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基于CSLE模型的陕北纸坊沟流域土壤侵蚀评价
马亚亚1, 王杰2, 张超2, 刘国彬3, 庞国伟4
1.西北农林科技大学 林学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.中国科学院 水利部 水土保持研究, 陕西 杨凌 712100;4.西北大学 城市与环境学院, 陕西 西安 710069
摘要:
[目的] 对陕北纸坊沟流域土壤侵蚀状况进行评价,为该流域不合理土地利用方式的调整和优化以及水土流失治理措施的合理布设提供科学依据。[方法] 以陕西省安塞县纸坊沟流域为研究区,基于ArcGIS技术,利用2005—2016年纸坊沟流域水文站月降雨量数据、DEM数据、土壤类型数据和土地利用数据,率定中国土壤流失方程(CSLE)的相关参数,计算研究区的土壤侵蚀强度,对土地利用变化与坡度和土壤侵蚀强度之间的关系进行分析。[结果] ①研究区内不同坡度带上的土壤侵蚀强度差异较大,15°~25°左右的坡耕地是土壤侵蚀的敏感部位。②纸坊沟流域内土地以林地、耕地、草地为主,耕地面积不断减少,林地和草地面积不断增加。该区域实施退耕还林后,土壤侵蚀的面积与强度整体呈现改善趋势;土地利用变化与土壤侵蚀强度具有密切联系,表现为耕地的土壤侵蚀强度较强,林地和草地侵蚀强度相对较弱,说明增加林地和草地面积,减少耕地面积,能够显著减弱土壤侵蚀。[结论] 研究区内土壤侵蚀空间分布受土地利用方式和坡度制约,该区今后水土流失治理的重点区域是15°~25°左右的坡耕地。
关键词:  土壤侵蚀  CSLE  水土保持  纸坊沟流域
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.06.015
分类号:
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发项目“黄土高原水土流失治理与生态产业协同发展技术集成与模式”(2016YFC0501707);国家自然科学基金项目(41771554)
Evaluation of Soil Erosion Based on CSLE Model in Zhifanggou Watershed of Northern Shaanxi Province
MA Yaya1, WANG Jie2, ZHANG Chao2, LIU Guobin3, PANG Guowei4
1.College of Forestry, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China;2.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China;3.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Science & Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shannxi 712100, China;4.School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shannxi 710069, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The soil erosion situation was evaluated in the Zhifanggou watershed of Northern Shaanxi Province in order to provides scientific basis and theoretical support for the adjustment and optimization of unreasonable land use patterns and the rational arrangement of soil and water conservation control measures in the watershed.[Methods] The present study amended the parameters of Chinese soil loss equation(CSLE) and calculated soil erosion intensity based on the data of monthly rainfall, DEM, soil type, and land use from 2005 to 2016 in the Zhifanggou watershed at Ansai County of Northern Shaanxi Province using ArcGIS. The linkages between land use change, slope degree and soil erosion intensity were also analyzed. Based on the aforementioned results, we put forward suggestions for the management of soil and water loss in this area.[Results] Soil erosion intensity differed greatly among different slope zones in the investigated area. Farmlands with 15°~25° slope in the watershed were sensitive to soil erosion. Forestland, farmland and grassland dominated the Zhifanggou watershed. The area of farmland decreased continuously and that of forestland and grassland increased gradually. Since the project of Grain for Green initiated, the area that subjected to soil erosion, and the erosion intensity were both decreased. There was a close association between land use change and soil erosion intensity, characterized by higher erosion intensity in farmland and lower density in forestland and grassland. These results indicated that increasing the forestland and grassland and decreasing the farmland could be favorable for the reduction of soil erosion.[Conclusion] Spatial distribution of soil erosion in the study area was dominantly determined by the land use types and slope degree. Soil and water loss management should focus on the slope land with degree of 15°~25°.
Key words:  soil erosion  CSLE  soil and water conservation  Zhifanggou watershed