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福建省长汀县不同水保措施的减流减沙效应
蒋涛1,2, 谢炎敏3, 陈志彪1,2, 陈志强1,2, 陈俊佳1,2
1.福建师范大学 湿润亚热带山地生态国家重点实验室培育基地, 福建 福州 350007;2.福建师范大学 地理科学学院, 福建 福州 350007;3.长汀县水土保持事业局, 福建 长汀 366300
摘要:
[目的] 揭示福建省长汀县不同水保措施的减流减沙效应,为南方红壤侵蚀区治理水土流失提供科学的依据。[方法] 以福建省长汀县水土保持科教园7种水保措施为研究对象,利用K均值聚类的方法将降雨特征划分为4类雨强和雨型定量研究径流泥沙,分析不同水保措施及雨型下的减流减沙效益。[结果] ①小区ZG(小平台+种果)与MWS(马尾松纯林)减流率最为显著;小区BC(全坡面种植+播草)和ZG减沙效果最为显著。②径流量与降雨量呈显著正相关,径流泥沙量在不同雨型下差异不显著,径流量与植被盖度显著相关; ③同一雨型下,不同水保措施处理的减流减沙效果均显著。[结论] 水保措施与对照小区的年径流量差异极其显著,减流减沙率受雨型影响较小,径流泥沙量与植被盖度、土壤有机质存在显著相关。
关键词:  水保措施  减流减沙效应  长汀县
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.06.006
分类号:
基金项目:福建省社会发展指导性(重点)项目“福建省稀土矿差异化治理优化模式与评价”(2016Y0024);国家科技支撑计划项目“南方红壤水土流失治理技术及示范”(2013BAC08B03)
Reductions of Water Flow and Sediment Under Different Water Conservation Measures in Changting County of Fujian Province
JIANG Tao1,2, XIE Yanmin3, CHEN Zhibiao1,2, CHEN Zhiqiang1,2, CHEN Junjia1,2
1.Key Laboratory for Subtropical Mountain Ecology(Funded by Ministry of Science and Technology and Fujian Province), Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China;2.College of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China;3.Changting County Soil and Water Conservation Bureau, Changting, Fujian 366300, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The effects of water & soil conservation measures on the reductions of runoff and sediment were researched in Changting County of Fujian province in order to provide scientific basis for soil erosion control in the southern red soil erosion area.[Methods] In the soil and water conservation science and education park in Changting County, Fujian Povince, seven soil and water conservation measures were set, the efficiencies in runoff and sediment reduction under four kinds of rainfall with respect to intensity and type were experimented and analyzed. Method of K-mean clustering was used.[Results] ① ZG(platform+fruittree) and MWS(Pinus massoniam pure trees) were the most significant in the reduction of water loss. BC(full slope planting+sowing grass) and ZG had the most significant effect on the reduction of sediment. ② There was a significant positive correlation between runoff and rainfall. There were no significant difference in the amounts of runoff and sediment among different rainfall intensities. Runoff were significantly correlated with vegetation coverage. ③ Under the same rain pattern, the effect of different water conservation measures on reducing flow and sediment was remarkable.[Conclusion] The difference of annual runoff between the plots treated with conservation measures and the control plot was very significant. The sediment reduction rate was less affected by rainfall type. The sediment quantity of runoff was significantly correlated with vegetation coverage and soil organic matter.
Key words:  soil and water conservation measures  reducing runoff and sediment effect  Changting County