文章摘要
李强,史星雲,牟德生,张军,王鑫,何彩.凉州灌区酿酒葡萄氮肥施用研究[J].水土保持通报,2018,38(5):336~340
凉州灌区酿酒葡萄氮肥施用研究
A Study of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Wine Grapes in Liangzhou Irrigation Area
投稿时间:2018-04-03  修订日期:2018-04-25
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.05.053
中文关键词: 氮肥  施用量  深度  酿酒葡萄  氮素利用  凉州灌区
英文关键词: nitrogen fertilizer  application rates  depth  wine grape  nitrogen utilization  Liangzhou irrigation area
基金项目:中央财政林业科技推广示范资金项目“酿酒葡萄抗寒苗木繁育及抗寒栽培技术示范推广”(〔2016〕ZYTG5);甘肃省省林业厅林业科技项目“河西灌区酿酒葡萄土壤与植物营养基础研究”(2015kj017)
作者单位E-mail
李强 武威市林业科学研究院, 甘肃 武威 733000  
史星雲 武威市林业科学研究院, 甘肃 武威 733000 598560320@qq.com 
牟德生 武威市林业科学研究院, 甘肃 武威 733000  
张军 武威市林业科学研究院, 甘肃 武威 733000  
王鑫 武威市林业科学研究院, 甘肃 武威 733000  
何彩 武威市林业科学研究院, 甘肃 武威 733000  
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中文摘要:
      [目的]通过田间试验,研究酿酒葡萄对不同氮肥施用量及施用深度的响应,为甘肃省凉州灌区酿酒葡萄氮肥合理施用提供依据。[方法]在凉州区设置酿酒葡萄氮肥施用量及施用深度试验,研究不同氮肥施用量及施用深度对酿酒葡萄产量、收获期果实、叶片和叶柄含氮量及收获期和第2 a萌芽期0—200 cm土层硝态氮含量的影响。[结果]10和30 cm施肥深度之间酿酒葡萄产量、收获期果实、叶片和叶柄含氮量及收获期和第2 a萌芽期0—200 cm土层硝态氮含量差异不显著。氮肥施用量对酿酒葡萄产量和叶柄含氮量的影响达到显著水平,对果实和叶片含氮量的影响不明显,其中高氮(300 kg/hm2)和中氮(240 kg/hm2)处理之间酿酒葡萄产量、果实含氮量、叶片含氮量、叶柄含氮量差异不明显,但是高氮和中氮处理与低氮(180 kg/hm2)处理相比,产量增加28.6%和24.1%,叶片含氮量增加17.4%和11.3%,叶柄含氮量增加了40.7%和33.0%,而对于收获期和第2 a萌芽期0—200 cm土层硝态氮含量,高氮处理相对于中氮和低氮处理增加了53.8%,94.4%和41.8%,76.1%,氮肥施用量和施用深度的交互效应,仅叶片含氮量达到显著水平。[结论]受土壤质地和传统沟灌影响,氮肥施用深度对酿酒葡萄影响效果不明显,240 kg/hm2为酿酒葡萄较为合适的氮肥施用量,但氮素也存在损失风险。所以,凉州灌区酿酒葡萄合理施肥应该和灌水方式进行结合来确定合理的施肥量和施肥方式。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] To study the responses of wine grapes for different nitrogen fertilizer application rates and depths, in order to supply theoretical basis for the nitrogen fertilizer application on wine grapes in the Liangzhou irrigation area of Gansu Province.[Methods] Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizer application rates and depths on grape yield, nitrogen content of fruit, leaf, stalk and residues of nitrate nitrogen in 0-200 cm soil layers during harvest and the second germination season.[Results] There were no significantly difference in the yield, nitrogen content of fruit, leaf, stalk and residues of nitrate nitrogen in 0-200 cm soil layers during harvest and the second germination season between 10 cm and 30 cm fertilization depths. The effects of different nitrogen fertilizer application rates on yield and nitrogen content of stalk reached significant level, but the effects on nitrogen content of fruit and leaf were not significant. There were no significant difference in yield, nitrogen content of fruit and leaf between high level (300 kg/hm2) and middle level (240 kg/hm2) nitrogen fertilizer treatments. Compared with low levels (180 kg/hm2) nitrogen fertilizer treatment, the yield significantly increased by 28.6% and 24%; The nitrogen content of leaf significantly increased by 17.4%, and 11.3%; and the nitrogen content of stalk significantly increased by 40.7% and 33.0% for high and middle levels nitrogen fertilizer treatment, respectively. Compared with middle and low levels nitrogen fertilizer treatment, residues of nitrate nitrogen in 0-200 cm soil layers for high levels nitrogen fertilizer treatment during harvest and germination season increased by 53.8%, 94.4% and 41.8%, 76.1%, respectively. As to the interactions between nitrogen fertilizer application rates and depths, only the nitrogen content of leaf reached a significant level.[Conclusion] Under the conditions of current experiment, the effect of nitrogen application depth on wine grape was not obvious, due to the influence of soil texture and traditional irrigation. The suitable nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 240 kg/hm2 for wine grapes, but there is also a risk of nitrogen loss. Therefore, reasonable fertilization amount and fertilization mode should be determined based on irrigation mode in Liangzhou irrigation area.
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