文章摘要
王志刚,韩培,周耀华,华忠光,蔡劲松,赵元凌,张平仓.超大城市水土流失空间分布格局及其防治策略——以武汉市为例[J].水土保持通报,2018,38(5):122~126
超大城市水土流失空间分布格局及其防治策略——以武汉市为例
Spatial Distribution Pattern of Soil and Water Loss and Its Conservation Strategies in Megacity—A Case Study in Wuhan City
投稿时间:2018-04-03  修订日期:2018-05-04
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.05.020
中文关键词: 城市水土流失  超大城市  空间格局  防治策略
英文关键词: urban soil and water loss  megacity  spatial distribution pattern  conservation strategy
基金项目:水利技术示范项目“基于无人机影像的重大水利工程水土保持监管技术示范”(SF-201709);武汉市水务局项目“武汉市水土保持遥感普查”(CKSK2016876/TB);湖北省水利厅项目“湖北省水土流失普查成果遥感复核”(CKSK2015592/TB)
作者单位
王志刚 长江水利委员会 长江科学院 水土保持研究所, 湖北 武汉 430010 
韩培 长江水利委员会 长江科学院 水土保持研究所, 湖北 武汉 430010 
周耀华 武汉市水务科学研究院, 湖北 武汉 430010 
华忠光 武汉市水务局, 湖北 武汉 430010 
蔡劲松 武汉市水务科学研究院, 湖北 武汉 430010 
赵元凌 长江水利委员会 长江科学院 水土保持研究所, 湖北 武汉 430010 
张平仓 长江水利委员会 长江科学院 水土保持研究所, 湖北 武汉 430010 
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中文摘要:
      [目的]研究超大型城市水土流失的空间格局,提出针对性的防治策略,为新时代推进绿色发展和建设美丽中国提供科学依据。[方法]以武汉市为例,利用DEM提取坡度,通过遥感影像解译土地利用类型、计算植被覆盖度,采用土壤侵蚀强度分级指标判定土壤侵蚀强度等级,制作空间分布图。[结果]武汉市水土流失具有“4圈”分布格局: ①内圈,主城区,地面硬化程度高,以微度流失为主; ②第2圈层,主城区周边城市拓展区,是城市建设等生产建设项目水土流失最严重的区域; ③第3圈层,城市拓展区外围平原农业生产区,水土流失面积小,强度低,但农业面源污染严重,又是山地、丘陵区的地表径流进入主城区的必经区域; ④第4圈层,远郊山地、丘陵区,以林地为主,兼有少量坡耕地和采石采矿迹地。[结论]根据武汉市水土流失“4圈”分布格局,制定针对性的水土流失防治策略:内圈需要加强城市绿地管理维护和地下排水系统的清理管护;第2圈层要加大生产建设项目水土保持监督执法,最大限度地扼制人为水土流失,加大施工迹地的恢复和城市生态景观建设;第3圈层需加强面源污染治理,建设生态清洁型小流域;第4圈层需要严守生态红线,大力保护森林资源,继续开展坡耕地治理、生态恢复和治理工作,注意控制旅游开发导致的人为水土流失。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] Studying the spatial distribution patterns of soil and water loss in the megacity is of great importance to make conservation strategies and promote constructing beautiful China in new era.[Methods] Spatial distribution patterns of soil and water loss in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, was investigated by spatial overlay analysis of land cover, vegetation coverage and ground slope according to the methods in standards for classification and gradation of soil erosion.[Results] The spatial distribution patterns of soil and water loss in Wuhan City was summarized as four circles. The core was the built-up area where the ground hardening was high and the soil and water loss was slight. The second circle was urban expansion area around the core area where the most severe soil and water loss occurred due to urban construction. The third circle was the agricultural production area in the plain around the second circle where the soil and water loss was low, but the agricultural non-point source pollution was very severe. The fourth circle was the outskirts of hilly area, mainly forest land with a small amount of slope farmland.[Conclusion] The management and maintenance of urban green space and underground drainage system should be enhanced in the core area. A great mount of urban building projects should be strictly supervised in the second circle. The construction sites should be restored to the most extend and the urban ecological landscape should be built to minimize the man-made soil and water loss. The agricultural non-point source pollution should be controlled and ecological clean watersheds should be built in the third circle. The slope farmland should be managed, ecological restoration should be improved, and the man-made soil and water loss caused by tourism development should be controlled in the fourth circle.
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