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地布-地膜覆盖对渭北旱塬区土壤水分的影响
苏凤梅1,2, 贾志峰1,2,3, 王智1,2,3,4
1.长安大学 环境科学与工程学院, 陕西 西安 710054;2.长安大学 旱区地下水文与生态效应教育部重点实验室, 陕西 西安 710054;3.长安大学 水与发展研究院, 陕西 西安 710054;4.美国加州州立大学 弗雷斯诺分校地球与环境科学系, 美国 加州 93740
摘要:
[目的]研究地布—地膜覆盖法的保湿效果及其耐久性,为渭北旱塬地区节水农业技术的进一步发展提供科学依据。[方法]针对地膜易风化,耐用性差,使用寿命短,残膜碎片对环境危害较大,而防草编织地布强度高,耐风化,但保水性差等优缺点,采用地布—地膜相结合(地膜在下,地布在上)的覆盖方式,开展为期1 a的浅层土壤水分动态原位监测试验。[结果]①无论地布—地膜覆盖区还是裸地区,其土壤含水量随深度的增加呈现出高—低—高的变化趋势。②地布—地膜覆盖区地面以下15,30,50 cm土层的土壤水分比不覆膜处理区日平均提高11.2%,8.0%,5.3%。③有限的降雨对裸地土壤含水率的影响主要反映在表层15 cm深度范围内,对覆盖条件下土壤含水率的影响则扩展到30 cm深度。④试验期内,地布性能保存完好,地膜除了边缘外露处部分风化外,地布覆盖部分基本保持试验初期的完好状态。[结论]地布—地膜覆盖方式不但具有良好的保水防草效果,同时有效延长了地膜的使用寿命。
关键词:  土壤水分  地布—地膜覆盖  降雨入渗  渭北旱塬区
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.05.016
分类号:P426.68
基金项目:高等学校学科创新引智计划“111”项目“干旱半干旱地区水文生态与水安全学科创新引智计划项目”(B08039);中央高校基本科研业务专项(310829161003);西安市建设科技计划项目(SJW2017-11)
Effects of Geotextile Plus Plastic Film Mulching on Soil Moisture in Weibei Dryland
SU Fengmei1,2, JIA Zhifeng1,2,3, WANG Zhi1,2,3,4
1.College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, China;2.Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region, Ministry of Education, Chang'an University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, China;3.Research Institute of Water and Development, Chang'an University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054, China;4.Department of Earth And Environmental Sciences, California State University, Fresno, California 93740, USA
Abstract:
[Objective] We studied the effects of geotextile plus plastic film mulching method on soil moisture conservation and its durability in order to provide a scientific reference for further development of water-saving agricultural technologies in Weibei dryland regions of Shaanxi Province.[Methods] Due to the fact that plastic film is easy to weathering, poor durability, short service life, and the residual debris is harmful to the environment, while weed-blocking geotextile is high strength, weathering resistance, but poor water penetration, this study used a combination of geotextile plus plastic film mulching (plastic film below the geotextile) to monitor soil moisture in-situ for one year.[Results] ① Under both mulching and non-mulching conditions, the variations of soil moisture content showed a high-low-high trend with the increase of soil depth. ② Under geotextile plus plastic film mulching conditions, the daily average soil moisture at 15, 30, and 50 cm depths increased by 11.2%, 8.0%, and 5.3%, respectively, compared to the bare soil area. ③ The impacts of limited rainfall on soil moisture were mainly reflected in the top 15 cm depth in the bare soil area, but extended to 30 cm depth in the mulched area. ④ During the experimental period, the properties of the geotextile was well preserved. The plastic film covered by the geotextile was also intact, similar to its initial state, except for the exposed edge areas that was fragmented due to weathering.[Conclusion] The geotextile plastic film mulching method not only showed advantages in water conservation and weed control, but also effectively extended the life of plastic film.
Key words:  soil moisture  geotextile plastic film mulching  rainfall infiltration  Weibei dryland