文章摘要
富丽,赵锦梅,李永宁,李亚红,戴煜亮,张伟飞.陇东黄土高原不同林龄苹果林地枯落物及土壤的水文效应[J].水土保持通报,2018,38(5):40~45
陇东黄土高原不同林龄苹果林地枯落物及土壤的水文效应
Hydrological Effects of Litters and Soil in Apple Tree Plantation at Different Stand Ages of Longdong Loess Plateau
投稿时间:2018-05-22  修订日期:2018-05-31
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.05.007
中文关键词: 枯落物  土壤持水性能  土壤渗透性  不同林龄
英文关键词: litter  water-holding capacity  soil permeability  different ages
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“东祁连山区高寒灌丛土壤水文效应研究”(41661060);甘肃省自然科学基金项目”东祁连山高寒草地土壤优先流过程研究”(1606RJZA005);甘肃农业大学学生科研训练计划项目(201610733020)
作者单位E-mail
富丽 甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070  
赵锦梅 甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070 zhaojm@gsau.edu.cn 
李永宁 甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070  
李亚红 甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070  
戴煜亮 甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070  
张伟飞 甘肃农业大学 林学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070  
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中文摘要:
      [目的]探讨甘肃省东部黄土高原苹果林地枯落物和土壤持水规律,为经济林的经营管理和生态效益评价提供科学依据。[方法]以林龄为1,3,7,13,29 a的苹果林地为研究对象,野外收集样品并采用室内浸水法和环刀法测定枯落物和0—80 cm土层的土壤水文性能。[结果]①7 a林地的枯落物层蓄积量、最大持水量和有效拦蓄量显著高于1,3,13,29 a的苹果林地; ②苹果林地枯落物最大持水量为5.02~20.66 t/hm2,与浸水时间呈对数关系(R>0.90);最大持水率为120.46%~352.53%,与浸水时间呈幂函数关系(R>0.64); ③随林龄增加,土壤容重变化不大,其变化范围为1.173~1.372 g/cm3,但总孔隙度、毛管孔隙度及最大持水量均表现为先增大后减小,分别为52.46%~57.06%,46.34%~51.87%,1 049.15~1 141.26 t/hm2,非毛管孔隙度与有效持水量总体呈增加趋势; ④林龄为3 a的初渗率和平均渗透速率均高于其他林龄苹果林地,为3 a > 1 a > 29 a > 7 a > 13 a。因此,林龄为3 a的苹果林地在整个渗透时间内其渗透性均高于其他林地。[结论]苹果经济林能显著提高水源涵养和水土保持功能,但枯落物和土壤的水文效应随林龄增加的变化并不同步,且随林龄增大也会出现功能衰退的趋势。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] To investigate the litters and soil water-holding in apple tree plantation in the Loess Plateau of east Gansu Province, in order to provide scientific basis for economic forest management and ecological benefit evaluation.[Methods] Taking the stand age of 1, 3, 7, 13 and 29-year old apple tree plantation as the research object, we collected soil samples and used indoor immersion method and cutting ring knife method to analyze the hydrological properties of litters and soil at 0-80 cm depth.[Results] ① The litters layer volume, maximum water holding capacity and effective interception volume of 7-year apple forest land were significantly higher than that of 1, 3, 13 and 29-year apple forest land. ② The maximum water holding capacity of litter was 5.02~20.66 t/hm2 and had a logarithmic correlation with immersion time (R>0.90). The maximum water holding rate of litter was 120.46%~352.53% and had a power function relation with water immersion time (R>0.64). ③ Soil bulk density changed little with the increasing stand age, and the change range was 1.173~1.372 g/cm3. In contrast, the total porosity, capillary porosity and maximum water increased initially and then decreased, the range was 52.46%~57.06%, 46.34%~51.87% and 1 049.15~1 141.26 t/hm2, respectively. Non-capillary porosity and effective water showed an overall increasing trend. ④ The initial infiltration rate and average permeation rate of 3-year old apple plantation were higher than those of other forest ages, which was 3 a > 1 a > 29 a > 7 a > 13 a. Therefore, the permeability of apple forest land aged 3 years was higher than other forest lands during the entire penetration time.[Conclusion] Apple economic forest can significantly improve the water conservation and soil and water conservation functions, but the hydrological effects of litters and soil are not synchronized, and with the increase of stand age, there will be a trend of functional decline.
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