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西藏中东部地区土壤侵蚀野外调查报告
马波1,2, 张加琼1,2, 税军锋1,2, 赵春敬2, 杨力华1, 王颢霖2, 陈同德2, 刘欣3, 曹晓萍1,2, 赵广举1,2, 易云飞4, 安韶山1,2, 郭明航1,2, 焦菊英1,2
1.中国科学院 教育部 水土保持与生态环境研究中心 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.西北农林科技大学 黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室, 陕西 杨凌 712100;3.西北大学 城市与环境学院, 陕西 西安 710127;4.西藏自治区水土保持局, 西藏 拉萨 850000
摘要:
[目的]西藏自治区地处中国西南边陲,属高寒环境,土壤侵蚀复杂多样。通过实地调查,旨在系统了解西藏中东部人口稠密区土壤侵蚀特征,为该区今后水土流失治理提供依据。[方法]调查组于2018年8月12—28日赴西藏自治区,沿林芝、工布江达、拉萨、曲水、日喀则一带选取11个典型集水区,对集水区内林地、草地、耕地、梯田等土壤侵蚀特征进行了调查和分析。[结果]西藏东南部林地内有小切沟出现;耕地田埂及田面部分塌陷损毁严重,并出现溯源侵蚀的特征。道路边坡侵蚀严重,并有跌坎、土体塌落、溯源等现象发生。西藏中部河谷地带洪积扇(台)、阶地等沟蚀剧烈,沟道切割纵深,严重影响当地农牧业生产。宽谷地带呈现风水复合及交错的侵蚀特征,覆沙坡面的片状侵蚀发育明显。[结论]西藏自治区土壤侵蚀过程复杂多样,而伴随该区气候环境暖湿化的发展,水土流失有进一步加剧的危险,需要在该区加强土壤侵蚀过程与机理的研究,同时也迫切需要加强该区的水土保持工作。在生态环境脆弱的西藏地区,更应该加强环境保护意识,加大水土保持治理力度,切实践行“绿水青山就是金山银山”的生态理念和绿色发展道路。
关键词:  西藏自治区  土壤侵蚀  水土流失  沟蚀  耕地
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.05.001
分类号:S157
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项“泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设”子课题“土壤侵蚀定量评价与分区防控对策”(XDA20040202)
Report on Field Survey of Soil Erosion in Central and Eastern Tibet
MA Bo1,2, ZHANG Jiaqiong1,2, SHUI Junfeng1,2, ZHAO Chunjing2, YANG Lihua1, WANG Haolin2, CHEN Tongde2, LIU Xin3, CAO Xiaoping1,2, ZHAO Guangju1,2, YI Yunfei4, AN Shaoshan1,2, GUO Minghang1,2, JIAO Juying1,2
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Research Center of Soil & Water Conservation and Ecological Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Education, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China;3.College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710127, China;4.Soil and Water Conservation Bureau of Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa, Tibet 850000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Soil erosion is complex and diverse in Tibet Autonomous Region locating in the southwest of China, attributed to its special environment represented by high altitude and cold climate. Through field survey, this study aims to systematically understand the characteristics of soil erosion in densely populated areas in Central and Eastern Tibet, and to provide a basis for regional soil erosion control in the future.[Methods] The survey was conducted from August 12 to 28, 2018. We selected 11 typical watersheds along a transect across Linzhi, Gongbujiangda, Lhasa, Qushui and Shigatse areas. We investigated and analyzed soil erosion of local primary land use types, including forest, grassland, and farmland.[Results] In the southeastern part of Tibet, continuous rainfall caused severe erosion in forest, farmland and on road slope. Small gullies appeared in the forest, collapse occurred in the cropland with ongoing developed headward erosion, while drop sill, gully, and upper-soil collapse occurred on the road slope. In the valleys of Central Tibet, gully erosion on the proluvial fan/pluvial tableland and terraces were severe. The densely distributed gullies and channels destroyed the landforms, and seriously affected local agriculture and animal husbandry. The wide valley area presented complex erosion characteristics influenced by both wind and water.[Conclusion] The soil erosion process in Tibet Autonomous Region is complex and diverse at present, and it has a high risk of accelerated erosion due to climate change and intensifying human activities. Thus, it is necessary to systematically study soil erosion process and mechanism, and urgent to enhance the soil and water conservation work in this area. Moreover, it is also important to strengthen our awareness of environmental protection to this fragile ecological environment in Tibet. All these provide the foundations for the implement of the green development concept "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets" proposed by the government of China.
Key words:  Tibet Autonomous Region  soil erosion  soil and water loss  gully erosion  farmland