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黑河水库非点源污染时空分布研究
张晓晗, 万甜, 程文, 王兰, 任杰辉
西安理工大学 西北旱区生态水利工程国家重点实验室培育基地, 陕西 西安 710048
摘要:
[目的]对黑河水库上游流域进行非点源污染模拟与分析,为水库水环境质量改善提供科学支撑。[方法]采用非点源污染—SWAT模型对流域内水文站2002—2008年的实测降雨、逐月径流以及泥沙及水质数据进行率定与验证,并对流域的非点源污染进行分析。[结果]①非点源污染的产出主要集中在汛期(6—10月)且与降雨成正相关关系; ②流域内降雨量分布从南向北、从山区向平原递减,径流深与降雨量成正相关,泥沙、非点源负荷的空间分布与降雨量相反; ③不同土地利用类型单位面积的非点源污染产出不同,耕地最大,草地次之,林地最小; ④面积耕地减少,污染负荷显著减少,耕地转换为林地的效果优于耕地转换为灌木林,退耕还林还草可有效减少流域内非点源污染负荷。[结论]黑河水库非点源污染主要发生在下游汛期6—10月,退耕还林、减少施肥可有效控制区域非点源污染。
关键词:  黑河水库  SWAT模型  非点源污染
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.04.051
分类号:
基金项目:陕西省水利科技计划项目“渭河陕西段水环境特征及水质演变过程分析”(2016slkj-10)
Temporal-spatial Distribution of Non-point Source Pollution Research of Heihe Reservoir
ZHANG Xiaohan, WAN Tian, CHENG Wen, WANG Lan, REN Jiehui
State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulic Engineering in Arid Area, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710048, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The SWAT model was used to simulate and analyze non-point source pollution in the Heihe upper reservoir in order to provide scientific support for the improvement of water quality of the reservoir.[Methods] The non-point source pollution-SWAT model was used to determine and verify the measured rainfall, monthly runoff, sediment and water quality data of the hydrological stations in the basin from 2002 to 2008.[Results] ① The output of non-point source pollution mainly concentrated in the flood season(June-October) and was positively correlated with rainfall. ② The rainfall within the river basin distributed unevenly and it decreased from the south to the north, from mountain to plain. The runoff depth was positively correlated with rainfall, and the spatial distributions of sediment and non-point source loads were opposite to rainfall. ③ The output of non-point source pollution per unit area varied with land use types. The cultivated land had the largest output, followed by the grassland, and woodland had the least. ④ In different simulation scenarios, the pollution load decreased significantly as the cultivated land decreased. In the aspect of non-point pollution control, forest land converted from cultivated land performed better than the cultivated land and woody forest from cultivated land. The conversion of farmland to forest and grassland could effectively reduce the non-point source pollution load in the basin.[Conclusion] The non-point source pollution of Heihe Reservoir occurred mainly in the downstream flood season from June to October. Returning land from farm to forestry, and reducing fertilization, could effectively control non-point source pollution in the region.
Key words:  Heihe Reservoir  SWAT model  non-point source pollution