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太湖流域典型土地利用类型生态耗水分量的比较研究
吕文1,2, 杨桂山1, 万荣荣1, 陶宇3
1.中国科学院 南京地理与湖泊研究所 流域地理学重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210008;2.江苏省水文水资源勘测局苏州分局, 江苏 苏州 215006;3.南京农业大学 土地管理学院, 江苏 南京 210095
摘要:
[目的]对太湖流域典型土地利用类型的生态耗水分量进行比较研究,为优化土地利用结构、提高流域生态系统水量调节能力提供理论基础。[方法]应用田块尺度土壤—水—大气—植物模型(SWAP),在太湖流域水汽通量监测试验基础上对林地、茶园和耕地的生态耗水进行数值模拟。[结果]①林地蒸腾量占据耗水量的87.80%,在林地生态系统调节水量过程中起着重要作用,生态耗水呈以8月为峰值的单峰曲线; ②茶园茶株蒸腾和株间蒸发占据耗水的94.86%,两者比值大约为3∶1,茶株的人工修剪对各分量的年内变化有影响; ③耕地作物蒸腾和棵间蒸发占据了耗水量的94.73%,两者比值约2∶1,并呈现麦季(1—5月)和稻季(6—11月)2个时段特征; ④流域竹林枯枝落叶层厚,树林冠层厚实,园地茶株由于修剪后枝叶还未恢复,耕地小麦和水稻作物有生长初始阶段,所以林地相比园地和耕地土壤蒸发偏低。[结论]3种不同土地利用类型的植被在不同生长阶段的叶面积指数、人工修剪作用对耗水量年内变化可能也会产生一定的影响。
关键词:  生态耗水分量  SWAP模型  土地利用类型  太湖流域
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.04.017
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目“太湖流域土地利用变化对生态服务功能影响机理与评估”(41030745);国家自然科学基金青年项目“太湖流域水生态服务供需空间量化、格局演变与驱动机制”(41701211)
Comparison of Ecological Water Consumption's Components of Typical Land Use Types in Taihu Lake Basin
LÜ Wen1,2, YANG Guishan1, WAN Rongrong1, TAO Yü3
1.Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China;2.Suzhou Substation of Jiangsu Province Hydrology and Water Resources Investigation Bureau, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, China;3.College of Land Management, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China
Abstract:
[Objective] Comparative study on ecological water consumption of typical land use types in Taihu Lake basin was conducted, in order to provide a theoretical basis for optimizing land use structure and improving water regulation capacity of the watershed ecosystem.[Methods] Based on water flux monitoring points, a field scale model, soil-water-atmosphere-plant model(SWAP), was applied to simulate the ecological water consumptions in forest land, tea garden and cultivated land.[Results] ① Ecological water consumption in the forest land showed a single peak from June to August, in which tree's transpiration contributed 87.80% of it, hence it played an important role in regulating the amount of water. ② Ecological water consumption in tea garden changed relatively in a flat mode during the year, tea plant transpiration(69.17%) and soil evaporation(25.69%) accounted for the majority of the water consumption together. ③ Yearly change of ecological water consumption in cultivated land had two obvious different periods, corresponding to wheat season(January to May) and rice growing season(June to November), respectively. Annual transpiration of cultivated land(61.28%) and the evaporation(33.45%) accounted for 94.73% of the water consumption. ④ The evaporation of forest land was relatively smaller than those of garden and cultivated land. This can ascribed as the following reasons:litter layer and canopy were thick in forest, whereas branch leaves did not recover in tea garden, and crops were at the stages of initial growth.[Conclusion] Annual variance of ecological water consumption was mainly affected by rainfall and temperature, but growth period of crops and tea pruning may also have their impacts on ecological water consumption.
Key words:  ecological water consumption's components  SWAP model  land use types  Taihu Lake basin