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黑河上游地表冻融指数与径流关系
郭阳1, 张廷军2, 曹琳2, 高坛光2
1.兰州大学 大气科学学院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;2.兰州大学 资源环境学院, 甘肃 兰州 730000
摘要:
[目的]探讨黑河上游地表冻融指数与径流的关系,为该流域的径流预测及水资源合理开发利用提供科学依据。[方法]利用1979-2006年黑河上游西支水文站和气象站的月平均径流、降水和气温资料,对该流域冻融指数变化、融化和冻结阶段径流变化进行分析,并对地表冻融指数与径流的关系做了进一步探讨。[结果]冻结指数和融化指数分别具有明显减少和增加的趋势,且在1990-2005年表现更为突出。径流在融化阶段变化趋势不明显,在冻结阶段呈现减少趋势,其中冬季径流减少趋势较为明显。季节冻融过程对冬季径流减少具有较为重要的影响,主要表现为冻结指数显著减小,表明土壤季节冻结过程中气温升高,这很可能使得冬季地表积雪更多地进行升华,从而削减了对径流的补给,导致了径流量的减少;融化指数显著增大,导致土壤季节融化深度增加了13~14 cm,从而增加了土壤的调蓄空间,使得部分地表水储存于活动层,导致地表冬季径流量减少。[结论]季节冻融变化是影响黑河上游径流的一个不可忽视的特殊因子。
关键词:  黑河上游  冻融指数  地表径流  多年冻土
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.20180524.001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目“黑河上游多年冻土区地表水、地下水过程及其效应研究”(91325202),“纳木错流域冰川物质平衡变化对径流热量的影响研究”(41501063);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金“干旱区均匀裸土下垫面地表能量不闭合成因及影响研究”(lzujbky-2016-196)
Relationship Between Surface Freezing/Thawing Index and Runoff in Upper Reaches of Heihe River
GUO Yang1, ZHANG Tingjun2, CAO Lin2, GAO Tanguang2
1.College of Atmospheric Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China;2.College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China
Abstract:
[Objective] The relationship between surface freezing/thawing index and runoff over the upper reaches of Heihe River in Western China was discussed in order to provide scientific basis for the runoff prediction and the rational development and utilization of water resources in this basin.[Methods] The impacts of precipitation, air temperature and surface freezing/thawing index on runoff during the period from 1979 to 2006 were investigated over the upper reaches of Heihe River basin in Western China. Changes in freezing/thawing index and river runoff in freezing/thawing period and the relationships between surface freezing/thawing index and runoff were further explored.[Results] There was a significant decrease trend in freezing while a significant increase trend in thawing index, and the most significant change occurred in 1990-2005. The variation of runoff was not obvious in thawing period, while it decreased dramatically in freezing period, especially in winter. The reduction of winter runoff was influenced by the variation in soil seasonal freezing and thawing. The freezing index was reduced significantly, indicating that air temperature increased in seasonal soil freezing process, and more snow sublimated in winter, so that the supply of runoff was reduced. The thawing index increased significantly, leading to a 13~14 cm increase in the depth of seasonal thawing soil, which resulted in an increase of the soil storage space to store part of the groundwater and a decrease in winter runoff.[Conclusion] Changes in the soil seasonal freezing and thawing play significant roles in the runoff of the upper reaches of Heihe River in Western China.
Key words:  the upper reaches of the Heihe River  freezing/thawing index  surface runoff  permafrost