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不同土壤耕作方式对东北风沙土区玉米田土壤质量及产量的影响
乔云发1, 苗淑杰1, 陆欣春2, 姚婷1, 王铁成3
1.南京信息工程大学, 江苏 南京 210044;2.中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150081;3.黑龙江省杜蒙县农业局, 黑龙江 大庆 162200
摘要:
[目的]研究黑龙江省西部不同土壤耕作方式对玉米产量及土壤性状的影响,为该地区农业生产提供参考。[方法]比较常规耕作、旋耕、翻耕、深翻和超深翻耕作对玉米产量和土壤物理特性的影响。[结果]翻耕和超深翻耕作增加了土壤含水量和田间持水量,降低了耕层土壤渗透速率、土壤容重和土壤紧实度,但是增加犁底层土壤渗透速率、土壤容重和土壤紧实度。翻耕、深翻和超深翻处理耕层土壤三相结构距离(STPSD)和土壤结构指数(GSSI)较好;翻耕、深翻和超深翻处理显著降低犁底层土壤的GSSI,增加STPSD;旋耕处理没有显著影响犁底层土壤GSSI和STPSD。与常规耕作处理相比,翻耕和超深翻分别增加玉米产量7.6%和6.0%。翻耕比超深翻玉米产量高10.9%。深翻处理玉米产量为5.58 t/hm2,比常规耕作减产8.1%。[结论]在不完全打破犁底层情况下,在黑龙江西部地区翻耕是比较理想的耕作方式。
关键词:  风沙土  耕作  土壤水分  玉米
DOI:10.13961/j.cnki.stbctb.2018.03.004
分类号:
基金项目:农业部公益性行业(农业)科研专项“旱地合理耕层构建技术指标研究”(201503116-03);南京信息工程大学大学生实践创新训练计划项目;南京信息工程大学引进人才项目
Effects of Tillage Management on Maize Yield and Soil Quality in Aeolian Sandy Soil of Northeast China
QIAO Yunfa1, MIAO Shujie1, LU Xinchun2, YAO Ting1, WANG Tiecheng3
1.Nanjing University of Information Sciences & Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210044, China;2.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, China;3.Dumeng County Agricultural Bureau of Heilongjiang, Daqing, Heilongjiang 162200, China
Abstract:
[Objective] A field experiment was carried out to investigate the responds of maize yield and soil physical characters to different tillage managements in order to provide the scientific basis for agriculture production in the western part of Heilongjiang Province.[Methods] Five tillage strategies including rotary tillage, plowing, deep plowing, deep subsoiling and local conventional tillage were used.[Results] By plowing and deep subsoiling, soil water content and field water capacity increased in topsoil but decreased in plow bottom soil. Soil three phase structure distance (STPSD) and generalized soil structure index (GSSI) were preferable in plowing, deep plowing and deep subsoiling treatments, but poor in plow bottom soil. Both GSSI and STPSD were not affected by rotary tillage. Compared to local conventional tillage, plowing and deep subsoiling increased maize yield by 17.6% and 6.0%, respectively. Maize yield with plowing was 10.9% higher than that in deep subsoiling. The maize yield in deep plowing was 5.58 t/hm2, which was 8.1% lower than that in local conventional tillage.[Conclusion] Without soil breaking at plow bottom, plowing was the best tillage management in the aeolian sandy soil of Northeast China.
Key words:  aeolian sandy soil  tillage  soil water  maize