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黄土丘陵沟壑区不同空间尺度流域泥沙输移比研究
王志杰1, 马丽梅2, 焦菊英1,3
1.中国科学院水利部水土保持研究所 陕西 杨凌 712100;2.湖北省水利水电科学研究院 湖北 武汉 130070;3.西北农林科技大学 水土保持研究所 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
泥沙输移比是定量表征流域内侵蚀产沙-河道输沙特征的重要指标。探讨了不同尺度流域泥沙输移比计算的可能性与方法,以黄土丘陵沟壑区的径流小区、小流域、水文站实测资料为基础,利用径流小区观测资料和单元小流域侵蚀模数2种方法,对4种空间尺度流域的泥沙输移比进行了估算。结果表明:(1)对于面积在10~100km2的小流域,利用2种方法计算的泥沙输移比结果非常接近,说明在没有小区观测资料时,用单元小流域计算流域泥沙输移比是可行的。(2)对于土壤侵蚀类型单一的水文站控制流域,在没有面积>1km2单元小流域资料的情况下,可以用面积1~10km2小流域或面积10~100km2小流域作为单元小流域来计算泥沙输移比而对于侵蚀类型不同的支流其误差范围有些偏大。(3)流域治理措施的实施对于泥沙输移比的减少具有明显的效果,但治理措施减沙效应的发挥具有一定的滞后性。
关键词:  泥沙输移比  侵蚀模数  输沙量  空间尺度  黄土丘陵沟壑区
DOI:
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基金项目:中国科学院重点部署项目“黄土高原及周边沙地近代生态环境的演变与可持续性”子课题“不同区域典型支流水沙变化对坝库工程的响应”(KZZD-EW-04-03-04)
Sediment Delivery Ratio in Different Spatial Scale Watershed in Loess Hill-gully Region
WANG Zhi-jie1, MA Li-mei2, JIAO Ju-ying1,3
1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources Yangling Shaanxi 712100 China;2.Hubei Water Resources Research Institute Wuhan Hubei 430070 China;3.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University Yangling Shaanxi 712100 China
Abstract:
Sediment delivery ratio(SDR) is the important indicator to represent the basin soil erosion and sediment:one of the sediment transport characteristics.Based on the measured data of runoff plots,small watersheds and hydrological stations of loess hill gully region,using the methods of runoff plots measured data and unit watershed erosion modulus,the SDR of 4 spatial scales were analyaed.The results showed that:(1)The SDR of watersheds between area of 10 and 100 km2 was approximated by two methods estimated.It was feasible to use unit watershed materials to calculate SDR,while there was no runoff plots data.(2)For the hydrological station controlled watershed,it could take the watersheds between 1 and 100 kmz as the unit watershed to calculate SDR while there was no material of watershed below 1km2.However,it has too large error for tributary of different erosion types.(3)Watershed management measures have obvious effect for reducing SDR,but its effect has a degree of lags.
Key words:  sediment delivery ratio  erosion modulus  sediment discharge  spatial scale  loess hill-gully region