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塔克拉玛干沙漠南缘不同植被区土壤水分状况研究
弋鹏飞,虎胆·吐马尔白,王一民,吴争光,张金珠
新疆农业大学,水利与土木工程学院,新疆,乌鲁木齐,830052
摘要:
采用野外定位观测法,对柽柳、胡杨、骆驼刺和沙拐枣林地土壤水分状况进行监测,并通过实测数据对农田区和荒漠区0-100cm土层土壤水分特征曲线进行拟合.结果表明,各林地0-250cm土层土壤含水量均随深度增加逐渐增大,生长季内9月和10月份土壤表层含水量明显大于其它月份.一次强降雨对土壤表层含水量有所补给,对深层土壤影响较小.总体而言,土壤蓄水量(0-250cm)在月季间差异不大,均维持在120-140mm之间,但各林地有所差异,表现为:胡杨>柽柳>骆驼刺/沙拐枣.对整个生长季而言,4种植物蒸散强度呈现出:胡杨>沙拐枣>柽柳>骆驼刺,且6月份蒸散强度最大.农田区和荒漠区0-100cm土壤含水量与土壤基质势间幂函数拟合效果好.研究成果可为该区今后植被保育及生态用水提供理论参考.
关键词:  土壤水分  植被建设  土壤水分特征曲线  塔克拉玛干沙漠  南缘
DOI:
分类号:S275.6 S153.61
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区科技重大专项"荒漠-绿洲过渡带经济型生态屏障建设技术集成示范"(200733144-2);国家重点基础研究发展计划"绿洲化的水-土-气-生过程及其相互作用机制"(2009CB421302);国家科技支撑计划项目"塔里木盆地西南缘绿洲外围经济型生态屏障建设技术集成示范"(2009BAC54B01)
Soil Water Conditions Under Various Vegetations in Southern Fringe of Takelamakan Desert
YI Peng-fei,Hudan·Tumaerbai,WANG Yi-min,WU Zheng-guang,ZHANG Jing-zhu
YI Peng-fei,Hudan·Tumaerbai,WANG Yi-min,WU Zheng-guang,ZHANG Jing-zhu(College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering,Xinjiang Agricultural University,Urumqi,Xinjiang 830052,China)
Abstract:
Over a long period of field experiment,soil water conditions were monitored in different woodlands with plants ofTamarix ramosissima, Populus euphratica,Alhagi sparsifoliaandCalligonum caput-medusae.Soil water retention curves from 0cm to 100cm were fitted for farmland and desert soils based on field data.The results show that,soil water contents gradually increased with depth in 0-250cm.During the growing season of September and October,soil water contents in 0-60cm layer were significantly higher than in the other months.Single heavy rainfall supplied a considerable amount of water to the soil layer of 0-60cm,while deeper soils were affected very little.The monthly change of soil water storage capacity was insignificant,fluctuating between120mm and140mm.However,the storage capacity differed in the fourspecies as in order ofP.euphratica>T.ramosissima>C.caput-medusae=A.sparsifolia.The evapotranspiriation ofP.euphratica, C.caput-medusae,T.ramosissimaandA.sparsifoliaduring the growing season ranged from high to low,respectively,as the highest values were observed in June.Exponential relationship between soil water contents and soil water potentials was found in the layer of 0-100cm for each soil,and all the correlation coefficients were over 0.90.The results provide necessary theoretical references for ecological water needs of vegetation recovery in this area.
Key words:  soil moisture  vegetation construction  soil water retention curve  Takelamakan Desert  Southern Fringe